Gambling involves placing something of value, usually money, on an event with an element of chance and the potential to win a prize. This could include betting on sports, playing casino games, lottery tickets, scratch-offs, horse racing, dice, or even winning a raffle or other charity events. The behavior may be considered a problem if it is excessive or causes financial or emotional distress in the person.
Although gambling is legal in many countries, it remains a dangerous activity with substantial social costs. It is estimated that one problem gambler affects seven other people, including family members and friends. It is also important to remember that gambling can be addictive and that it can lead to serious financial problems, especially when combined with alcohol or other drugs.
In the United States, a person with a gambling disorder is known as a pathological gambler (PG). Approximately 0.4%-1.6% of adults meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for PG. Most PGs start gambling in adolescence or early adulthood and develop a problem several years later. Male pathological gamblers are more likely to have a gambling problem than females, and they tend to have problems with more strategic or face-to-face forms of gambling, such as poker or blackjack.
Pathological gambling is a treatable condition that can be managed with various types of therapy, including group or individual cognitive-behavioral therapy and self-help groups. Some patients respond to medication. Other patients benefit from specialized gambling treatment centers. The most effective treatments combine several different therapies and techniques.
Longitudinal studies of gamblers can provide valuable insights into the etiology of gambling disorders and can inform clinical practices. However, longitudinal studies are challenging to conduct. They require a large investment of time and resources and are often confounded by factors such as aging effects, period effects (e.g., whether a person’s interest in gambling increases because they are becoming an adult or because a new casino opened in their area), and attrition among the research participants.
In addition to evaluating treatment efficacy, longitudinal research is crucial to understanding the dynamics of problem and compulsive gambling. Researchers are working to improve the collection and interpretation of data to better understand what factors lead to gambling behavior, how it is maintained, and how to prevent or treat problem gambling. For example, they are developing computer programs to identify gamblers at risk of developing a gambling problem, and tools to evaluate the risks of gambling products. They are also exploring ways to increase the sensitivity of gambling-related indices to detect hidden patterns and anomalies. Ultimately, such advances will help reduce the economic and social costs of gambling. They will also make it possible to develop more targeted and effective interventions for those who are at risk. This is particularly important because gambling has been found to be highly addictive. In addition to increasing the risk of addiction, it can also cause depression and other mood disorders.